domingo, 22 de novembro de 2009

Unit 2 - Annotated Bibliography (Online Teaching Techniques)

This annotated bibliography will respond to the questions raised by the professor. I’ll use different articles to answer to the following questions:
1. Which online teaching techniques do you prefer?
2. What are the implications of using individual and group assignments in online education?
3. How can we secure a reasonable workload for online teachers?
From the several Online learning techniques refereed by Professor Paulsen

This annotated bibliography will respond to the questions raised by the professor. I’ll use different articles to answer to the following questions:
1. Which online teaching techniques do you prefer?
2. What are the implications of using individual and group assignments in online education?
3. How can we secure a reasonable workload for online teachers?
From the several Online learning techniques refereed by Paulsen, I prefer starting with a Learning contract, a technique that is considered to be used to individualize the learning process, by making an agreement that details what’s going to be learned, the objectives, competencies, the course contents, the work methodology, the resources and all the required readings, the learning environment that’s going to be used, assessment and the timeline that shows the temporal distribution of all activities.
Another teaching technique that I found important in teaching online is the Debate, consisting of as “Seaman and Fellenz (1989, 65) wrote: “A debate is a structured discussion during which two sides of an issue are presented and argued by two or more individuals within a given time period.”
Knox (1987, 88) offered another explanation: “Similar to a lecture or panel, but two or four debaters argue two sides of an important issue to clarify differences and related reasoning… Clark (1992a, 58) offered these guidelines for an electronic debate with regard to participation, preparation, coordination, and evaluation:
▪ Participation. A debate could engage two classes that agree to participate actively, two teachers who know how to telecompute, one impartial coordinator who knows how to telecompute, an experienced debater to help students learn the process, and two or more evaluators familiar with the proposition.
▪ Preparation. Give the coordinator a list of curriculum-related issues, become familiar with the evaluation criteria, and decide whether a winner will be declared. Set up speech deadlines within a four-week framework, and agree on a maximum word length for each speech. Organize classes into teams by role or by speech, and have groups research both sides of a proposition
▪ Coordination. The coordinator should formulate and announce the proposition, randomly assign groups to affirmative or negative, and channel speeches between the two sides. Further, the coordinator should mediate the debate, keep team identities secret until after the last speech is sent, and enlist evaluators and manage the evaluation process.
▪ Evaluation. After the debate, feedback from the evaluators could be discussed and students could exchange comments on the issue and process. “

Another teaching technique that I prefer is Role-plays that is “according to Rothwell and Kazanas, role-play is “a range of methods in which trainees put themselves in dramatic situations and act out scenes like actors in a play.... There are essentially two kinds of role-play: structured and spontaneous.... Structured role-play is based on a case study.... Spontaneous role-plays are based on momentary experiences.”
Another one is Discussion, where discussion groups may be implemented as buzz groups, subgroup discussions, expanding groups, and colloquies.
Buzz groups are “small clusters of learners who are temporarily grouped together for a short period to address a topic presented by a facilitator.” (Seaman and Fellenz 1989, 131)
Forums is another teaching technique that “can be defined as “an open discussion carried on by one or more resource persons and an entire group. It is used when large groups of twenty-five persons or more meet for the purpose of diffusion of knowledge, information, or opinion. The forum tends to be semiformal in nature and is directed by a moderator. The moderator is responsible for guiding discussion during which the audience is encouraged to raise and discuss issues, make comments, offer information, or ask questions of the resource person(s) and each other.”
Harisim, phrased some teaching techniques and I selected the ones that I consider importants :”
▪ Small group discussions. In small group discussions, three to ten users discuss a particular topic, usually guided by an instructor or a group leader. The discussion often follows a seminar discussion or a plenary discussion. It may also complement a parallel face-to- face or online activity.
▪ Learning partnerships and dyads. In learning partnerships and dyads, learners are paired for mutual support and group work. These techniques can serve as icebreakers in early phases of online classes and they are also useful for joint writing projects.
▪ Small working groups. Small working groups can facilitate collaborative work. Student groups can, for example, solve problems, undertake research projects, and write reports. Effective groups, though, require clearly defined tasks, roles, and timeliness.
▪ 6. Simulations or role-plays. Simulations and role-plays allow students to apply and test theoretical knowledge in a simulated environment. Examples of successful role-plays in online environments.In the evaluation manor, learners assume the perspectives of various evaluators to debate evaluation procedures and approaches.
▪ Debating teams. In debating teams, learners have the opportunity to improve their analytical and communication skills by formulating ideas, defending positions, and critiquing counter positions.
▪ Peer learning groups. In peer learning groups, learners assist one another with writing assignments, problem solving, etc. Students may, for example, collaborate online to improve their writing skills.
▪ Informal socializing: the online cafe. Since social communication is an essential compo- nent of educational activity, online educational environments should provide opportuni- ties for informal discourse. An online cafe can contribute to a sense of community among the users, forging a social bond that may offer motivational and cognitive benefits.
▪ Mutual assistance for help. Valuable online support, based on mutual assistance, can be organized in an online conference where students can ask one another for help. Such a conference may be especially useful with regard to technical problems and system support.
▪ Access to additional educational resources. Additional online resources for educational use include international networks, databases, library catalogues, and information pools. To benefit the curriculum, these resources could be an integral part of the online activities.”

the Teaching Techniques Discussed by Rekkedal and Paulsen were:"
1. Distribution of information. Distance teaching systems need to increase the efficiency of distributing and updating information to students, faculty, and staff. Computer con- ferencing can, for example, be used for distribution of updated learning materials and information about courses, seminars, examinations, and student activities.

2. Two-way communication between student, tutor and staff. In most distance teaching sys- tems, submission of assignments for correction, evaluation, and feedback is important. Research shows that extended turnaround times may have destructive effects on course completion. It often takes too long for students to get help when they encounter prob- lems in their studies. To some extent, telephone support has been used in these situa- tions, but computer conferencing systems function more conveniently. Students may, for example, ask questions at any time, without the time delay of land mail. Draft solutions may be discussed, introducing a more flexible organization of tutoring and assessment. Student answers may be made available to other students, before or after submission deadline. Computer-scored tests can also be included in online systems, as a substitute for traditional off-line computer scoring. In higher-level education, two-way communi- cation by e-mail may be used in the guidance of individual student projects.

3. An alternative to face-to-face teaching, introduction of group discussion and project work.
3. Many distance education programs include occasional face-to-face meetings between tutors and students, but practical or geographical considerations restrict many students from taking part in these meetings. Sometimes, face-to-face meetings develop into one- way presentation of subject matter. Computer conferencing, on the other hand, mainly involves information exchange and interpersonal discussion. Electronic classroom discussions can develop into exciting experiences of group learning. In the same vein, the medium seems to foster equality of status between the participants. Finally, special group-learning techniques – such as group submission of assignments, group learning and presentations, seminars, and project work – may be applied.
4. The public tutorial. Most distance education systems are designed for individual learning, but communication between one tutor and a number of individual learners is time- consuming. Questions, answers, and comments from one student will, however, often be of relevance to others. In a conferencing system, such interaction could be made accessible to all students along with pre-produced information of general interest.
5. Peer counseling. Informal peer counseling and cooperation are regular activities in on- campus programs. In computer conferencing, the possibilities for such collaboration are obvious and actively supported in the majority of learning programs. Peer help in solving problems may often come from an unknown friend. Peer counseling may be of particular value in large-scale systems where hundreds of learners are studying the same subject.
6. Free flow discussion. A number of educational conferencing systems have established social conferences, such as the cafe, the pub, or the coffee shop. These conferences have shown that informal discussions and non-academic activities can thrive in edu- cational conferencing systems.
7. The library. In an online text database, articles, lectures, research reports, etc. can be made available to the students.2
Teaching Techniques Discussed by Kaye
In a literature review paper on collaborative learning, Kaye (1992) described the following seven applications of CMC in education and training programs:
..."2. The online classroom. Applications of the online classroom model have often been inspired by the “virtual classroom”. First, the group size is comparable to that in a face-to-face class. Second, there is at least one person responsible for guiding the group’s activities and, third, computer conferencing represents the principal mode of communication. Varieties of online class- rooms depend on the age of student groups, the educational levels, and the roles taken by the people responsible for the groups."
"4. Computer-supported writing and language learning. Since the combination of CMC and word processors essentially has a textual nature, it has attracted interest within the field of the teaching of writing and language skills. Examples include Connected Education’s creative writing courses and Rio Salado Community College’s courses in creative writing, technical writing, and English composition."

6. Lecture-room adjunct. In large on-campus lecture classes, there is little time for individual students to ask questions and the format does not invite discussion. In such a context, universi- ties may establish conferences where students can get help from teachers and other students.
7. The education utility. The education utility is a set of online resources that students and faculty can access.

resource:Paulsen, Morten in Framework for Online Teaching Techniques.

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